Molecules of Life – Compare the structure and function of phospholipids and triacylglycerols

Question 1
a. Explain why we consider lipids to be a class of macromolecules even though they are often small and may have very different structures.

b. Compare the structure and function of phospholipids and triacylglycerols. Explain how the structure relates to function.

c. Describe the structure and function of lipoproteins.

d. Discuss LDL and HDL cholesterol in the blood. Explain why it is important to maintain low levels of LDL cholesterol in the blood and why this can be a problem for some individuals.

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Question 2
a. Define the following terms

  • Metabolism
  • Catabolism
  • Anabolism

b. Explain why energy metabolism takes place in multistep pathways.
c. Explain how energy is trapped by metabolism.

d. Write brief notes on TWO of the following and explain how each contributes to overall energy production.

  • Glycolysis
  • Citric acid cycle
  • Electron transport
  • Oxidative phosphorylation


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Question 3
Write a short account of TWO of the following topics:-

  • Activity at the prokaryotic replication fork
  • Processing of hnRNA to mRNA in eukaryotes
  • The experiments of Hammerling and Brachet with Acetabulia species on the location of the genetic material in eukaryotes.
  • The structure of DNA
  • Transcription

Your short account should include descriptive and explanatory text with annotated diagrams as appropriate. You should expect to write about a side and a half of A4 for each answer.


Question 4
a. Draw a diagram to illustrate the main features of Crick’s Central Dogma of Molecular Biology, and hence information flow within a cell.

b. The genetic material of eukaryotes, DNA, is held within the nucleus where it is packaged with histones to maintain its integrity. Describe the first level of packaging – nucleosome/beads on a string and explain how this serves to both package and stabilise the DNA.

c. By the use of annotated diagrams show how the information transferred from DNA to mRNA is converted to the primary structure of the polypeptide.


Question 5
a. Give the main structural and chemical differences between RNA and DNA.

b. There are three important classes of RNA found in prokaryotes. What are these and what are their functions?

c. Eukaryotic cells possess more types of RNA molecules than are found in prokaryotes. Identify these and give their functions.


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Molecules of Life – Compare the structure and function of phospholipids and triacylglycerols